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October 31, 2008

Retracting Sales Based On The Talmud

The Talmud cited the following incident: There was once a food shortage in Nehardea. All the people sold their mansions. Eventually, wheat arrived and Rav Nachman told them that the law is that the mansions must be returned to their original owners.

The Talmud notes that the reason why sales are void is because they were made in error, since it became known that the ship carrying the wheat was waiting in the port at the time the mansions were sold.

The Talmud in the daf yomi adds that this would explain the following conversation: Rami bar Shmuel said to Rav Nachman, if you rule like this, you will cause them trouble in the future. Rav Nachman replied that a food shortage is not common, and therefore we need not worry about the next one. Rami bar Shmuel retorted that a food shortage in Nehardea is indeed a common occurrence!

There are many legal issues that this Talmud is used to resolve.

Reuben desperately needed an operation and he desired a certain expert doctor to perform the surgery. The hospital told him that he presently was outside of the country, and will only be returning the following week. Reuben vowed an enormous amount of money to charity if the surgeon would return earlier than he originally intended. As soon as he uttered those words, the doctor was standing by his bedside. He told Reuben that he had decided to shorten his vacation. The question was asked - was Reuben obligated to fulfill his vow? Perhaps, he was not required to give the money to charity, for at the time that he pronounced the vow, the doctor was already in the country.

There was a certain city where a terrible edict was issued against the residents. They sent a message to a well-known Rabbi, who was famous for delivering miracles through his prayer. The Tzadik agreed, but requested of them to send a certain amount of money that he would be able to distribute to the widows and orphans residing in his city. A short amount of time after they sent the money, they received a letter that the decree had been cancelled. The city was overjoyed. However, one resident sent a letter to the Maharsham saying that perhaps, they should get their money back because he noticed that the date on the letter stating that the decree had been cancelled was before they actually sent the money. It appears that the giving of the money was erroneous.

Reuben and Simon bought two lottery tickets together. They made up that they each would share the winnings of each ticket. The reason for this decision was based on the Talmud in Bava Metzia that states that the mazal of two people together is better than one. After the lottery numbers were chosen, Reuben went to Shimon attempting to switch the deal. He said, let us each keep the winnings of our own individual ticket. Reuben did this because he already knew that the ticket that he was holding was chosen and he would receive fifty thousand dollars. Simon agreed to this new deal. The reason that Simon agreed was because the ticket that he was holding was chosen, and he would now receive the full share of a two hundred million dollars. Can Reuben now retract from the second deal?

Based on the decision of the Talmud, in all three cases it would seem, the money does not transfer when a deal was made after the circumstances causing deal are no longer prevalent.

Original By Billy Kite

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Building A Web Empire Through Membership Sites

There are so many different ways that you can make money online but one of the most interesting ways is through building membership websites. These websites can be on almost any subject and as long as you have enough information on that subject to offer something of use to your subscribers, it can become a membership website. What are some of the benefits of building your websites to include a membership and how easy are they to maintain?

The benefits of owning a membership website are really easy to see once you understand the principle of recurring income. If you have a product that you are going to sell, such as an e-book or perhaps some downloadable software, typically you make that sale and then you have to go about trying to make further sales on the backend. If you have a membership website, as long as they remain a member of the website, you will receive a recurring income, month after month. The great part about this is that you don't even have to try to continue making money from your existing members, the money that they pay you is paid automatically, every month.

Another benefit of owning membership websites is that it can form a community which will help your membership to grow and to thrive. You can do this by putting such things behind the membership area as an online forum or perhaps a blog which encourages members to comment. By getting your members involved in the group, it will be a much easier thing for them to remain a part of the group. If you simply have them come on board and then provide them with an article once or twice a month, it will be much easier for them to leave as they will not generally feel as though they are part of a community.

Membership websites are fairly easy to set up once you have the proper software in place. There are plenty of membership website software programs available, many of which will fill various needs for your particular site. Some of the things that you really need to look for, however, are ease-of-use, easy installation, security in the membership area and the ability to accept various forms of payment for the membership website.

As far as the payment on the website is concerned, there are several different options that you can choose from, even if you don't have a merchant account of your own. One of the most obvious that you can use is PayPal as it is almost universally used by many members on the Internet. A person that has a PayPal account can also accept credit cards under certain circumstances. Aside from PayPal, you can use ClickBank, Google Checkout and a wide variety of other online services.

Building a web empire around membership websites is an excellent way for you to reap the rewards of recurring income. Not only that, as long as you can provide them with content and a community like atmosphere, you can keep that recurring income for a very long time.

Original by
Guido Nussbaum

October 29, 2008

Cultural Broker

Who Is the Cultural Broker?

The characteristics, roles, and skills of cultural brokers are highly variable. Currently, the term cultural broker is used to denote a range of individuals from immigrant children who negotiate two or more cultures daily (Phillips & Crowell, 1994) to leaders in organizations who serve as catalysts for change (Heifetz & Laurie, 1997). The range and complexity of roles are equally varied. Cultural brokers may serve as intermediaries at the most basic level—bridging the cultural gap by communicating differences and similarities between cultures. They may also serve in more sophisticated roles—mediating and negotiating complex processes within organizations, government, communities, and between interest groups or countries.

One cultural broker may have extensive training and experience; another may have just been appointed to this role—for example, a parent in the community, or a support person in the organization—and wish to learn what is involved. In a broader sense, many staff working in health care settings or health education programs span the boundaries of the culture of health care and the cultures of the people they serve.

1. Cultural broker as a liaison
Cultural brokers are knowledgeable in two realms: (1) the health values, beliefs, and practices within their cultural group or community and (2) the health care system that they have learned to navigate effectively for themselves and their families. They serve as communicators and liaisons between the patients/consumers and the providers in the health care agency.
These personnel can play a critical and beneficial role—on a personal level, in the community in which they live, and on a professional level, in their respective agencies or practices. These personnel effectively bridge the two worlds. Similarly, NHSC scholars and clinicians in service, who come from diverse cultural backgrounds, also may be effective in assuming this role and function—particularly when housed in service areas where they have an understanding of the values, beliefs, and practices of the community.

2. Cultural broker as a cultural guide
Cultural brokers may serve as guides for health care settings that are in the process of incorporating culturally and linguistically competent principles, values, and practices. They not only understand the strengths and needs of the community, but also are cognizant of the structures and functions of the health care setting. These cultural brokers can assist in developing educational materials that will help patients/consumers to learn more about the health care setting and its functions. They also can provide guidance on implementing workforce diversity initiatives.
Some organizations that are well connected to the communities they serve use a community member as a cultural broker because of the member’s insight and experiences. A critical requisite for the cultural broker is having the respect and trust of the community. Using a community member as a cultural broker is acknowledgment that this expertise resides within the community. This approach also allows the health care setting to provide support for community development

3. Cultural broker as a mediator
Cultural brokers can help to ease the historical and inherent distrust that many racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse communities have toward health care organizations. Two elements are essential to the delivery of effective services: (1) the ability to establish and maintain trust and (2) the capacity to devote sufficient time to build a meaningful relationship between the provider and the patient/consumer. Cultural brokers employ these skills and promote increased use of health care services within their respective communities. For instance, cancer researchers have had to find ways to ease the concerns of the African American community about participating in clinical trials. For many African Americans, the Tuskegee study is a painful reminder of medical research gone wrong. In that study, conducted from 1932 to 1972, poor Black men were not fully informed about their participation in medical research on syphilis. They also were not given treatment for their disease, despite the eventual availability of drug treatment. Cultural brokers often can bridge this chasm of distrust that many cultural communities have toward researchers. Cultural brokers can be instrumental in reestablishing trust and reinforcing the importance of participating in research, particularly related to the elimination of racial and ethnic disparities in health.

4. Cultural broker as a catalyst for change
In many ways, cultural brokers are change agents because they can initiate the transformation of a health care setting by creating an inclusive and collaborative environment for providers and patients/consumers alike. They model and mentor behavioral change, which can break down bias, prejudice, and other institutional barriers that exist in health care settings. They work toward changing intergroup and interpersonal relationships, so that the organization can build capacity from within to adapt to the changing needs (Heifetz & &aurie, 1997) of the communities they serve.

Whatever their position or roles, cultural brokers must have the capacity to:

assess and understand their own cultural identities and value systems;
recognize the values that guide and mold attitudes and behaviors;
understand a community’s traditional health beliefs, values, and practices and changes that occur through acculturation;

understand and practice the tenets of effective cross-cultural communication, including the cultural nuances of both verbal and non-verbal communication; and
advocate for the patient, to ensure the delivery of effective health services.
Who can fulfill the role of cultural brokers in health care settings?
Almost anyone can fulfill the role of a cultural broker. Most cultural brokers assume multiple roles within health care and other settings and their respective communities. Although cultural brokers serve the same function, they come with different expectations and have divergent experiences, yet aim to create a cultural connection.

Cultural brokers may be any of the following:

outreach and lay health worker
peer mentor
community member (family member, patient)
administrative leader
nurse, physician, physical therapist,
or health care provider
social worker
program manager
health educator
board member
program support personnel

Cultural brokers may work in these settings:

community health centers
community-based organizations
government offices
churches, mosque, kivas, plazas, temples, and other places of worship
faith-based organizations
migrant communities

Whatever their position, cultural brokers aim to build an awareness and understanding of the cultural factors of the diverse communities they serve and of the ways in which such factors influence communities. Cultural brokers may not necessarily be members of a particular cultural group or community. However, they must have a history and experience with cultural groups for which they serve as broker including:

the trust and respect of the community;
knowledge of values, beliefs, and health practices of cultural groups; an understanding of traditional and indigenous wellness and healing networks
within diverse communities; and
experience navigating health care delivery and supportive systems within communities.

by ebased treatment org.

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October 21, 2008


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I used the same process to build my blog and website that you are viewing now, and which now
generates a pretty reasonable income, and which is growing all the time. So this Masters Course is not just for Mums, aspiring work from home Dads should read it as well. For more info click on the services email or "Get your Website" icon on the navigation bar on the lefthand side of this page.

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This is a preview of virtual Ebook of Homeshoring Jobs an ideas, your complete guide to virtual employment. These introductory chapters show you how to get a work from home job from one of 180+ companies like LiveOps, West at Home, Alpine Access, JetBlue in USA and Canada - or any other employer that pays people to work at home on the phone. my group worked really hard on this ebook and ideas, and we hope you enjoy the preview and are inspired in your work-from-home job hunt. There ARE real companies that pay you to work from home - and some of them even have benefits!

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